"Telling the truth"
"Seeking the truth"
It is a commonly recognized moral principle that people should
reason for this is that others are likely to believe the lie and make
decisions because of it.
Responsible thinking does not aim directly at changing
the behavior of the person who is giving information, the potential
liar, but at changing the understanding of the person who is receiving
the information, the
one who might be deceived. To some extent lying and deception has been
commonly recognized as undesirable behavior for a long time. What seems
to be less frequently a concern is whether the listener or learner
earnestly seeks to avoid false beliefs, and whether that person has the
recognize deception and avoid adopting false beliefs.
Concentrating on the truth-seeking behavior may be more
successful because the
listener benefits from avoiding falsehood, while the deceiver often
benefits if the falsehood continues. The
listener, therefore, has good incentive to cooperate with an effort to
avoid error, while the deceiver usually doesn't want to cooperate in
When looking at what the truth-seeker can do to prevent
false beliefs, we should
go beyond just resisting lies, but also look at some of the ways people
can arrive at a wrong opinion even though nobody is deliberately trying